While there are endless diets, supplements, and meal replacement plans that claim to lead to rapid weight loss, many lack scientific evidence. However, there are some strategies supported by science that have an impact on weight management. These strategies include exercising, monitoring calorie intake, intermittent fasting, and reducing the number of carbohydrates in the diet.

The weight loss methods supported by scientific research include:

· Intermittent Fasting: It is a type of nutrition that includes eating in a short time during the day with regular short term hungers. Many studies have shown that short-term intermittent fasting of up to 24 weeks leads to weight loss in overweight individuals.

The most common intermittent fasting methods include:

Alternative day fasting (ADF): Eat normally on non-fasting days and fasting on other days. In its modified version, it involves consuming only 25-30 percent of the body’s energy needs on fasting days.

2 Diet: Fasting 2 days in 7 days. Consume 500-600 calories on fasting days.

16/8 method: Fasting for 16 hours during the day and eating food in a slice of only 8 hours. For most people, it is until 8 in the afternoon (12.00). A study of this method revealed that eating in a limited period resulted in participants consuming less calories and losing weight.

It is best to adopt a healthy diet on fasting-free days and avoid over-eating.

Keep track of your diet and exercise: If someone wants to lose weight, they should be aware of everything they eat and drink every day. The most effective way to do this is to record every item they consume on a daily or online food tracker. One study found that consistent monitoring of physical activity helps weight loss. In the meantime, a review study showed a positive relationship between weight loss and the frequency of food intake and exercise monitoring. Even a device as simple as a pedometer can be a useful weight loss tool.

· Eating carefully: Eating carefully is an application where people pay attention to how and where they eat. This application can allow people to enjoy their food and maintain their healthy weight. Because most people lead a busy life, they often eat while running, working in the car, at their desks, and watching television. As a result, many people are not aware of the food they eat.

Careful eating techniques include:

· Eating, preferably sitting at a table: Watch out for food and enjoy the experience.

· To avoid distractions while eating: Do not turn on the TV, a laptop or a telephone.

· Slow eating: Take time to chew and enjoy the food. This technique helps to lose weight because it allows a person’s brain enough time to recognize the signals that they are full, which can help prevent over-eating.

· Making nutrient choices: Choose foods full of nutrients and foods that will satisfy you for hours instead of minutes.

Eating protein at breakfast: Protein helps regulate appetite hormones that help people feel full. This is mostly due to the decrease in fasting hormone ghrelin and the increase in saturation hormones peptide YY, GLP-1 and cholecystokinin. Research on young adults has also shown that the hormonal effects of a high-protein breakfast meal last for several hours. Good options for a high protein breakfast include eggs, oats, walnuts and seed pieces, kinoa porridge, sardines and chia seed pudding.

Cutting sugar and refined carbohydrates: The Western diet is increasingly increasing in added sugars, and this has definite links to obesity, even in cases where sugar occurs in soft drinks rather than foods. Refined carbohydrates are heavily processed foods that no longer contain fibers and other nutrients. These include white rice, bread and pasta. These foods are quick to digest and quickly convert to glucose. Excess glucose enters the blood, provokes the insulin hormone, which results in increased adipose tissue adipose tissue, contributing to weight gain. Whenever possible, people should change processed and sugary foods for healthier options.

· Whole grain rice, bread and pasta instead of white versions

· High sugar snacks instead of fruits, nuts and seeds

· Herbal teas and fruit infused juices instead of high sugary soda

· Water and milk instead of juice in smoothies

Adequate fiber intake: Unlike dietary fiber, sugar and starch, it defines plant-based carbohydrates that cannot be digested in the small intestine. Including plenty of fiber in the diet can potentially increase the feeling of fullness that leads to weight loss. Whole grain breakfast cereal, whole wheat pasta, whole grain bread, oats, barley and rye, fruits and vegetables, peas, beans and pulses, nuts and seeds

Balancing the intestinal bacteria: The human intestine contains a large number of microorganisms, including about 37 trillion bacteria. There are different types and amounts of bacteria in the intestines of each individual. Some species can increase the amount of energy a person collects from food, which can cause fat to accumulate and gain weight. Some foods may increase the number of good bacteria in the gut.

Carla Rodrigues
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