Obesity, which is defined as excessive fat accumulation in the body, does not only mean to have excess weight. It affects health in many ways.

What is Obesity?

Obesity is the accumulation of excess fat in our body. Another definition is that the energy taken into the body is more than spent. According to World Health Organization data, as of 2017, nearly 2 billion people are struggling with obesity in the world. Obesity rates are 15% for men and 24% for women.

What are the causes of obesity?

False and irregular eating habits, hormonal diseases, insufficient physical activity, genetic factors, drugs used, psychological factors and socio-economic factors can be mentioned.

How is obesity classified?

Body Mass Index BMI ratio (BMI) is used to classify obesity. This ratio is the ratio of the person’s weight divided by the square of his height. According to the World Health Organization classification, obesity is classified as follows.

What are the effects of obesity on our body?

Obesity has significant negative effects on all systems in our body. These are;

  • Hypertension
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • High cholesterol values ​​(Total cholesterol and LDL)
  • Low good cholesterol values ​​HDL
  • High blood lipid rates
  • Sleep apnea and sleep disorders
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Stroke
  • Diseases of the gallbladder
  • Joint disorders
  • Depression and anxiety
  • Poor quality of life
  • Increased incidence of certain cancers, mainly breast and large intestine.

Because of all these reasons, the mortality rate has increased in obese patients. Obese people live on average 10-12 years less than normal weight people.

What is the effect of obesity on quality of life?

Quality of life in obesity is severely impaired. Obesity restricts your physical movement and causes widespread body pain and fatigue. In a US study, it was found that morbidly obese women had 4 times more depression than normal weight women.

In the studies, a direct relationship between psychosocial adjustment and weight was determined and it was shown that weight loss and quality of life increased.
It has been shown that 95% of the patients undergoing obesity surgery have improved quality of life.

Obesity is a treatable and reversible condition. Nowadays there are 3 basic treatments. These;

  1. Drug treatment
  2. Diet and exercise
  3. Obesity Surgery

To avoid obesity, it is essential to consume less food, avoid high-calorie foods rich in fatty, carbohydrates, and exercise regularly.

Given that it is so widespread in society, it is clear that diet and exercise are inadequate. Studies have shown that non-surgical methods for the treatment of morbid obesity permanent weight loss rate is around 2%. Today, permanent and definitive treatment of morbid obesity is surgery.

What is Obesity Surgery? Who can be applied?

Obesity surgery (bariatric surgery) is the name given to all surgical interventions to eliminate obesity. Obesity surgery;

All morbidly obese people with BMI> 40 kg / m²,

BMI is between 35-39.9 kg / m² and has concomitant diseases (diabetes, diabetes, hypertension, sleep problems, joint problems, depression, sexual dysfunction),

It can be applied to people who have been obesity for at least 3 years and have had 2 diet programs for a minimum of 6 months.

Who cannot perform obesity surgery?

  • People with ‘uncontrolled systemic disease’ where anesthesia is very risky
  • For those who have never tried diet during their life
  • To those who have mental problems that cannot understand the procedures
  • Socially solely for those who cannot receive home support
  • People with psychiatric problems requiring treatment
  • Drug, alcohol or substance addicts
  • Completely inactive patients
  • Not applicable to adolescents younger than 70 years of age or older.
  • Risks and harms of obesity surgery

We can categorize the risks of obesity surgery in two ways. The risks that may occur due to anesthesia are general risks that may be valid in all operations. There are also possible side effects and risks associated with obesity surgery. General risks;

Anesthesia: With today’s anesthesia technology, immediate monitoring of all vital signs and, if necessary, immediate interventions, the risks of anesthesia have decreased to a level that can be neglected (1/20 000 – 1/30 000).

Clot Formation and Pulmonary Embolism in the Legs: Obesity (bariatric) is one of the surgical risks involved in the formation of clots in the legs and into the lungs (embolism) is a risk of overweight. It is a risk in the daily life of people with a body mass index of 35 and above. The risks related to weight loss are reduced after these operations, while the risk is minimized by blood thinning needles and embolism socks.

Carla Rodrigues
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